"Urban Poverty - Report of the National Commission on Urbanisation", Vol. II. Part III. Ministry of Urban Development, New Delhi, August 1988, [C.J20],/eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M023.html
" Manifestions of Urban Poverty:Report of the National Commission on Urbanisation", Vol. II. Part III. Ministry of Urban Development, New Delhi, August 1988, [C.J20],/eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M025.html
Growth of Slums and Bustees.
Growth of the Informal Sector.Increasing
Casualisation and Underemployment of Labour.Crushing Pressure on civic
Madhura Swaminathan, " Aspects of Urban Poverty in Bombay", Environment and Urbanization, IIED, United Kingdom. April 1995, [C.J10a],/eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M026.html
The paper considers poverty and deprivation among two groups of low-income communities in Bombay: pavement dwellers and households living in a designated "slum" area.
In 2001,the population living in the urban slums numbered as many as 40.6 million. This was 23 per cent of the 178.4 million living in the 607 towns that reported slums,and 14 per cent of India's total urban population of 285.3 million....Our Special Correspondent," Maharashtra Reports Largest Slum Population", The Hindu,Chennai, 27 November 2001. [C.J10a.271101H].
We no longer depend on the water supplied by the hydrants. It takes over an hour to get the required water pressure of 150 gallons per minitue from a hydrant. Instead of wasting an hour, we quickly despatch our water tankers (with a capacity of 16,000 litres each) to the spot and extinguish the fire within minutes. Somit Sen, "BMC Looks on as Slum Dwellers Steal Water From Fire Hydrants", The Times of India, Mumbai, 12 January 2003. [C.J33.120103TOI].
Subsequently, in the face of
limited possibities of labour
absoption in the organised sector, particularly in industry, the rural
migrant workers are belived to create a situation of unlimited supply
labour in the urban job market. This leads to a residual absorption of
labour in the informal sector, generally said to be
by low productivity. Those in the middle-income groups have a higher
to migrate than those in the bottom or upper income brackets.
Indrani Gupta, & Arup Mitra, "Rural Migrants and Labour Segmentation - Micro-Level Evidence from Delhi Slums", Economic and Political Weekly, Mumbai, 01 December 2002. [J.01DEC02EPW].
In particular, this corner of
India produces everything
from garments to tallow to watch-strap buckles to lip smaking
like Chikki, much of it for export. Much of this activity is illegal
unsafe, but that matters to nobody, For these reasons, For all its
squator, Dharavi has been a magnet of opportunity that has reached out
to every corner of the country.
D'Souza, Dilip, "Twilight City", The Hindu, Chennai, 16 February 2003. [C.J10a.160203H].
For the first time, the
census has attempted to
collect data on the slum population of the country and put the number
slum dwellers at 40.6 million...The urban development ministry has,
chosen to reject the provisional data and termed it "defective" and
The ministry claims that the slums population in the country should be
between 61 million and 70 million in 2001...The figure is important
it is used as the basis for preparing slum improvement and
poverty alleviation programme.
Mamata Singh, , "Number Crunchers and Slum Sums", Business Standard, Mumbai, 10 December 2001. [C.J10a.101201BSB]./eldoc/j10a/10dec01bsb1.html http://www.business-standard.com/archives/2001/dec/50101201.054.asp
Of the 70.8 million people
living in 26 of India's largest
cities,16.9 million live in slums, according to data collected in the
of 2001,which works out to 23.86 percent.
Mamata Singh, "23.86% of City Dwellers Live in Slums", Business Standard, Mumbai, 26 November 2001. [C.J10a.261101BSB].
"A Case Study of Ecohealth in the Urban Slums of Jerimeri Bombay", South-South Solidarity, New Delhi. Pg. 13-18. [R.J10a.22].
The slum dweller have become an
integral part of the life.
It is quite abvious that without them the present
visible in the city could not have been. They work in the construction
sites, households etc. The city, without any hesitation, embraces them
when it needs them. When the same people complete their job of building
the city and make any attempts to find a niche for themselves,they are
treated as unwanted elements.
Rahul Singh, "Do Slum Dweller Have The Right To Life?", The Lawyers Collective, Mumbai, 01 August 2000. [J.J10a.01AUG00LAW].
Jeremy Seabrook, "The City, Our Stepmother", New Internationalist, UK, May 1997. [C.J10a.010597NI] /eldoc/j10a/01may97ni1.html http://www.newint.org/issue290/keynote.htm
Sharmila Joshi, "To go global, evict the poor", [J10b], /eldoc/j10b/forcedeviction.htm http://www.humanscapeindia.net/humanscape/hs0301/hs020310t.html
Aruna Chakravorty, "The struggles people go through put mine to shame", Humanscape, Bombay, 01 Sept. 2003, [C.J10a],/eldoc/j10a/01sep03hus8.html http://www.humanscapeindia.net/humanscape/new/sept03/thestrugglespeople.htm
"The Urban Poor", Population Reports, New Delhi, 01 May 2003, [C.J10a] /eldoc/j10a/01may03por.html
"India’s poor present a latent opportunity for growth: Prahalad", Business Std(Bombay), 17 Jan 2002, [C.J10a], /eldoc/j10a/17jan02bsb1.html http://www.business-standard.com/archives/2002/jan/50170102.051.asp
Health Correspondent, "Awareness
levels about malaria
is low among slumdwellers: Survey",
Times of India,
Bombay, 27 July 2001, [C.J10a.], /eldoc/j10a/27jul01toi1.html
Resettlement and Rehabilitation; Policy related to Slums
According to the report, the
Committee had completely
reversed the earlier emphasis, in official policy, on improvement to
demolition of slums, It recommended summary eviction and demolition of
large slums with police aid until a 'measureable decrease' in their
was definitely indicated. According to the committee's estimates, 5-6
people or half the population of Bombay, would be forcibly shifted to
far end of the suburbs. This extreme measure was thought necessary
the squatter settlements were on high value land that the private
urgently required; they would now be able to acquire these plots, after
the demolitions, through, open market sales...
The Urban Development Minister even went to the extent of promising builders extra FSI on condition that they built in slum areas or rebuilt dilapidated buildings, and was hailed by the 'Tenants Association'...
Since the government has no money for an extensive development, housing and rehabilitation scheme, the private sector is presumed most admirablay suited to undertake this work...
Projects and programmes that pull the population towards Bombay should be discouraged. The Nariman Point and New Cuffe Parade Complexes would never have come up except for the fact that buildings contributed heavily to the personal and party accounts of the politicians and parties in power. The bridge planned across the Harbour to Uran from South Bombay first not be constructed. Estimated at 500 crores, for a road link alone, this bridge is expected in dramatically increase the number of persons travelling in the North South corridor by the suburban trains every day, for to go to Uran people will anyway have to come to South Bombay from the suburbs.
Colin Gonsalves, "Bombay: A City Under Seige", Inst. of Social Research Education, pg. 1-17, August 1981. [R.J06.3].
Nauzer Bharucha, "Shabana's Plan May be Approved", The Times of India, Mumbai, 24 June 2002. [C.J10.240602TOI]
Sayyed Ahmed, Minister of State
for Housing, Slum Improvement,
House Repairs and Reconstruction, Aukaf in conversation with Manoj
Highlights the achievements of the government in fulfilling the ‘Home
All’ dream of every individual.
Manoj Mahanta, "We Would Like to See Mumbai Become A Slum-Free City in the Next Ten Years", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 19 October 2002, [C.J10b], /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M016.html
Nominal price to be charged
now. Developers lost interest
in Slum Rehabilitation Scheme. The much hyped SRS failed during the
BJP regime,although the then government blamed the depression in the
estate market and red-tapism for the failure of their electyion plank.
Express News Service," No More Free Houses for Slum-Dwellers", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 08 November 2002, [C.J10b], /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M019.html
Those hutments,which were
constructed before January 1995
and those eligible for state protection will be
alternate accommodation before the demolition exercise begins. the
cost of rehabilition of these slum dwellers will have to be born by the
Union government as the slums had come up on land belonging to the
Authority of India (AAI).
Times News Network, "2000 Hutments Adjoining Airport Will Be Razed", The Times of India, Mumbai, 09 October 2001. [C.J10a.091001TOI].
Sources said that with civic
elections around the corner,politicians
were reluctant to support the demolition of huts. Unlike middle class
slum dwellers turn up in large numbers on polling day and no potician
Archana Sharma, "Politicians Did Not Want to Alienate Airport Slum Dwellers Before Civic Polls", The Times of India, Mumbai, 07 December 2001. [C.J10a.071201TOI].
Srinivas Laxman, "Focus Shifts to Slums Near Airport After Attack on Parliament", The Times of India, Mumbai, 14 December 2001. [C.J10a.141201TOI].
About 400 structures,
including several tea stalls,eateries,grocery
shops and offices of courier companies were razed with bulldozers at
Gandhi Nagar near Centaur Hotel. There are 733 structures in this slum.
The occupants of 333 huts are ineligible for rehabilitation since they
belong to the post-January 1995 category.
Times News Network, "400 Huts Near Airport Razed as Demolition Drive Finally Takes Off",The Times of India, Mumbai, 22 December 2001. [C.J10a.221201TOI].
Populist measures seen to have
taken priority over security
considerations once again, with the state government on Thursday
the demolitions of slums around Mumbai airport. The decision was
prompted by the forthcoming elections to the Brihanmumbai Municipal
Archana Sharma, "Slum Demolitions Near Airport Stayed", The Times of India, Mumbai, 28 December 2001. [C.J10a.281201TOI].
Times News Network, "New Laws Likely For Slum Rehab Scheme", The Times of India, Mumbai, 25 February 2003. [C.J10b.250203TOI].
The township project will cost
about Rs.420 crores. Each
of the 16,500 families will contribute Rs.25000 and the remaining
will be given by Sumer corporation. The township will consist of 14
two hospitals,six places of worship, 700 shops, two community halls,180
welfare centres. 180 balwadis, a four-acre maidan and 26 neighbourhood
Times News Network, "NGO, Not Developer, Will Construct Slum Project", The Times of India, Mumbai, 06 February 2003. [C.J10b.060203TOI].
Under the scheme, Sumer must
provide free tenements to
the slum families on the Chandivli land. In return, It will get TDR
severral hundreds of crores which can be used for development purposes
anywhere north of the Chandivli plot This TDR can also be sold to a
party by summer.
Nauzer Bharucha, "Slum Authority Approves TDR Valued at Rs. 10 cr to Developer", The Times of India, Mumbai, 01 February 2003. [C.J10b.010203TOI].
Barely 27,000 slum families,
constituting less than two
percent of the 12 lakh slum families eligible for rehabilitation in the
city have been shown as rehoused by private developers under the state
government's flatering slum policy over the last decade...
An official of the slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA) said about 15 percent of the 27,000 rehoused families has illigally sold it tenements and moved out. However, government sources claimed that the number could be as high as 50 per cent.
Nauzer Bharucha, "Jittery Builders Lobby for Support on Slum Policy", The Times of India, Mumbai, 23 January 2003. [C.J10b.230103TOI]
The judges directed the
government and the SRA to give
the NGO's inspection of records pertaining to plots in
of which proposals has been sanctioned since 1998. The documents to be
given to the NGOs would also include sanctioned plans which would
areas where the slums-dwellers are sought to be rehabilitated,buildings
which are meant for free sale by the builders and particulars of the
on the plots.
"A sharp decline in open spaces is witnessed in the last two three decades,even though the 1947 development plan had recommended a ratio of close to four acres per 1000 persons."
Times News Network, "HC Curbs Rehabilitation Plans on Reserved Plots", The Times of India, Mumbai, 16 January 2003. [C.J10b.160103TOI].
Times News Network, "Plan to House Slumdwellers on Salt Pan Land", The Times of India, Mumbai, 08 January 2003. [C.J10b.080103TOI].
Under the scheme, developers
are alowed to build higher
apartment blocks than normal. They can sell these extra apartments to
the free homes they provide slum dwellers.
Times News Network, "Slum Rehabilitation Scheme Runs Into Rough Weather", The Times of India, Mumbai, 10 November 2002. [C.J10b.101102TOI].
"A builder,who undertakes a
rehabilitation project to
rehouse project -affected slum dwellers, is entitled to additional
The developers get a whopping floor space index (FSI) of 4.5 as
of development rights (TDR) for every 2.5 FSI consumed on site for
a source said. Under the normal slum redevelopment scheme ,no such TDR
facility is given to the builder.
Nauzer Bharucha, "HC will Decide on Rehab Plan for Park Encroachers", The Times of India, Mumbai, 26 August 2002. [C.J10b.260802TOI].
Our Correspondent, "State's Slum Rehabilitation Plan Welcomed", The Asian Age, Mumbai, 28 March 2002. [C.J10b.280302AA]
Nauzer Bharucha, "Mhada Plan May Choke Suburban Life", The Times of India, Mumbai, 02 May 2002. [C.J10b.020502TOI].
It is learnt that since January
1998, the SRA has approved
67 slum rehabilitation schemes on encroached land under the development
plan for recreation grounds,playgrounds,gardens,roads,markets and
Times News Network, "Slum Land 'Freed' For Gardens, Playgrounds", The Times of India, Mumbai, 02 April 2003. [C.J10b.020403TOI].
Abraham, Renni , "Aarey colony rehab plan forwarded to slum body", Business Std(Bombay), 13 Oct 2003, [C.J10b.], /eldoc/j10b/13oct03bs1.html http://www.business-standard.com/archives/2003/oct/50131003.033.asp
Madhura Swaminathan, "Slums in Bombay:Deprivation and the Environment", 'The Hindu Survey of the Environment' , The Hindu, Chennai, 1995, [C.E10], /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M017.html
People in slums will continue
to lead a life of misery
unless concerted efforts are made I by the powers-that-be and voluntary
groups I to raise their standard of living by improving the environment
around their dwellings, says MADHURA SWAMINATHAN, of the Indira Gandhi
Institute for Development Research, Bombay.
Dr. Amita Bhide, "Whither The Urban Poor?", Combat Law, Mumbai, 01 April 2002, [C.J10b], /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M020.html
A review of the Slum Areas of Maharashtra (Improvement, clearance and Redevelopment ) (Second Amendment) Act, 2001. Sharma, Dr.R.N & Narender, Dr.A., "Policies and Strategies For Slum Improvement and Renewal - The Bombay Experience", 'Urban Explosion of Mumbai: Restructuring of Growth', Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai, April 1996. [C.J06], /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M022.html
The proliferation of slums and
squatters in large Indian
cities has become the central theme of discussion among policy-makers,
public officials and academics. So many solutions are suggested. For
the urban crisis is synonymous with the 'housing crisis'. Ample data
be cited to prove the phenomenal growth of sub-standard dwellings in
"Urban Poverty-Report of the National Commission on Urbanisation",'Summary of Recommendations, Vol. II. Ministry of Urban Development, New Delhi, August 1988, [C.J20] /eldoc/urban_issues/uu1_M024.html
Slums, squatters colonies and unauthorised colonies should be recognised as part of peoples effort to provide shelter for themselves in the absence of the State being able to meet this need. Therefore the approach to such colonies should be one aiming at regulation rather than removal.
THE State Goverment 's decision
to allow height of slums
to be raised to feet has raised the hackles of
soon become Slumbai" is the common refrain.
Express New Service, "SEC Seeks Details on Move to Allow Slums More Space", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 22 November 2001. [C.J10a.221101IE].
With the view to boost
development of urban infrastructure
in the country,the Government has alredy permitted 100
investment (FDI) for development of an entirely new township in the
Our Special Correspondent, "Ministry to announce National Slum Policy", The Hindu, Chennai, 18 October 2001. [C.J10a.191001H]. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/2001/10/19/stories/0219000x.htm
Or take Mumbai.In 1976,half the
city's population (2.5million
out of 5.9million)lived in 1680 slums that dotted the place .A 1983
showed there were 1930 slums in the city and some 4.3 million people
in them. Today,40 percent of mumbai's 15 million residents still dwell
in slums and nearly 2 million people have no toilet facilities...
But Shanghai's response to its urban challenge was clear and quick. The municipal government simply razed all illegal migrant setlements and launched a highly sucessful Housing Relief Project to give all residents a decent living space of 10 squre meters per person. Old houses were demolished, million s of square meters of new apartments space were built, new residential zones were developed, and some 47,000 households that previously lived in tiny 2.5sq m .units were resettled in more spacious surroundings.In Shanghai today,some 83,000 square meters of housing are being routinely renvoated every year.
By an estimate,12 lakh slum
dwelling families are to benefit
from the latest pampering by the government. It means either the
slum dwellers will get additional space to live,as the decision
aims or worst it will facilitate an influx of 12 lakh families with
space ready for them.
Parag Rabade, "Mumbai To Slumbai", Deccan Herald, Bangalore, 09 December 2001.
As we consider each successful
slum reconstruction scheme
in the past, three features stand out. Once is that the urban poor
need nor expect free housing. With the help of occasional voluntary
they seen to have managed their own construction process perfectly well
in the past. So there is no need to involve buildersin the
process at all. All that the poor need is land, with security of tenure
and basic urban infrastructure...
If slum rehabilitation is to work, the first step must be the transfer of ownership of land to the occupants, or if not ownership,at least some measure of long term security of tenure.
Shirish B Patel, "Tackling Mumbai's Slums", Seminar, New Delhi, 01 September 1996. [J.01SEP96SEM].
Observers feel that the move
could also lead to a spurt
in population as some owners could lease out the upper storey of their
homes to other families
Times News Network, "Govt Allows Mumbai Slums to Raise the Roof", The Times of India, Mumbai, 15 June 2002. [C.J10b.150602TOI].
The scheme to give free 225sq
ft tenements to each
slum family free of cost, with involvement of builders, was initiated
the Shiv sena-BJP aliance and is being continued by
Democratic Front government in the state...
Although builders who undertook these slum projects have earned huge profits by selling the slum dwellers have not benefited from the scheme.
Nauzer Bharucha, "Slum-Dwellers Must be Spurred to Upgrade Homes with Savings, Loans', The Times of India, Mumbai, 01 April 2002. [C.J10b.010402TOI].
Times News Network, "Centre Set to Unveil New Slum Policy", The Times of India, Mumbai, 16 February 2002. [C.J10b.160202TOI].
Changes will also be initiated in
the definition of a
protected occupier, he said "The earlier ordinance said that a
issued by the state government will be treated as the sole document of
proof of residence prior to January 1,1995. The new amendment will also
include a string of any other authentic documents which will
the slum dweller's existence prior to January 1,1995." an official
"Govt will Redraft Slum Bill, Clear Anomalies", The Times of India, Mumbai, 21 July 2001. [C.J10a.210701TOI].
Express News Service, "Amended Slum Act Will Not Encourage More Encroachers", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 09 July 2001. [C.J10a.090701IE].
Demolition of any
illigal structure will now take
at least a month instead of the earlier 24 hours, because of the recent
amendments, evidently made withan eye to the amendments bestow on the
of illigal structures the right to a ten-day notice (as opposed to the
24-hour notice which had been the practice earlier ) as well as to
by the assistant municipal commissioner...
After the hearing,if the structure is proved to be illigal, the owner will be given ten more days to demolish it himself. The BMC or the collector can demolish the structure only if the owner fails to do so. If the slum dweller rebuilds the structure the same procedure will have to be followed all over again...
Archana Sharma, "Act Demolishes Dream of Slum-Free City", The Times of India, Mumbai, 08 July 2001. [C.J10a.080701TOI].
Express News Service, "State
Govt to Withdraw GR
on Rent and Identity Cards for
Slumdwellers", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 02 August 2001. [C.J10a.020801IE].
Times News Service, "Charges Approved for Slum Dwellers", The Times of India, Mumbai, 29 September 2002. [C.J10a.290902TOI].
Express News Service, "Bill Introduced to Give Slums Protection", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 28 July 2001. [C.J10a.280701IE].
In this scheme, the BMC provides
free dustbins and garbage
disposal van to these slums. Workers are hired to clean the area for
the slum dwellers have to pay a nominal amount
Sugandha Indulkar,"City Slums Get a Facelift", The Times of India, Mumbai, 24 July 2001. [C.J10a.240701TOI].
Express News Service, "Slums to Get More Breathing Space", The Indian Express, Mumbai, 20 November 2001. [C.J10a.201101IE].
The Maharashtra legislative
assembly on wednesday passed
a bill making penal punishment for helping and abetting construction
use of unauthorised hutments in Mumbai and other cities in the state.
The Times of India News Service, "Assembly Okays Slum Area Amendment Bill", The Times of India, Mumbai, 02 August 2001. [C.J10a.020801TOI].
"The People's Charter of Mumbai",YUVA, Mumbai. [C.J10a.].
The Brihanmumbai Municipal
Corporation general body on
Friday passed the administration’s controversial Rs 419-crore slum and
tenements redevelopment project for Tardeo’s Tulsiwadi area.
TIMES NEWS NETWORK, "BMC clears slum project",Times of India, Bombay, 22 November 2003, [C.J10b.], /eldoc/j10b/22nov03toi2.html,
Reduction in India : Towards Building Successful
Slum-Upgrading Strategies", 06 November 2003, [J10b.], /eldoc/j10b/slum_upgrade.htm
In A Chawl",Outlook,
New Delhi, 27 October 2003, [C.J10b], /eldoc/j10b/27oct03out1.htm:
Express News Service, "No
more free houses for slum-dwellers",
Express, Bombay, 8 November 2002, [C.J10b.], /eldoc/j10b/08nov02ie1.html,
& slums : related government interventions",
TIMES NEWS NETWORK, "Charges
approved for slum dwellers",
29 August 2002
Times of India, Bombay,[C.J10a], /eldoc/j10a/29aug02toi1.html
Nauzer Bharucha, "Activist threatened for opposing illegal slums", Times of India, Bombay 05 July 2002, [C.J10a], /eldoc/j10a/05jul02toi1.html
Times News Network, "BMC
plans to get tough with
squatters", Times of India, Bombay
06 June 2002,
Special Correspondent, "Ministry
to announce National
Slum Policy", Hindu, Madras, 19
October 2001, [C.J10a],
The Times of India News Service, "Assembly okays slum area amendment bill", Times of India, Bombay, 02 August 2001, [C.J10a], /eldoc/j10a/02aug01toi1.html
Mantralaya Correspondent, "Govt will redraft slum bill, clear anomalies", Times of India Bombay, 21 July 2001, [C.J10a.], /eldoc/j10a/21jul01toi1.html
Services for the Poor: Poverty alleviation
through community cooperation"
15 March 1999,
"In the making, a hot, upscale residency called Dharavi", [.J10a.], /eldoc/j10a/dharavi.htm http://www.indianngos.com/issue/housing&slums/index.htm
Laurie Baker, "What
can we do with a slum?", [J10a.],
Rajindar Sachar, "Civil
and political rights of
slum dwellers", [.J10a.], /eldoc/j10a/slumdweller_rights.htm
Title :Poverty Reduction in India : Towards Building Successful Slum-Upgrading Strategies
Date : 06/11/2003
Title :‘The struggles people go through put mine to shame’
Author :Aruna Chakravorty
Date : 01/09/2003
Public : Humanscape Place : Bombay
Title :The Urban Poor
Date : 01/05/2003
Public : Population Reports Place : New Delhi
Title :High-rise chaos: Blame it on the slum authority
Author :Shailesh Gaikwad
Date : 09/01/2003
Public : Indian Express Place : Bombay
Title :Beyond evictions in a global city: people-managed resettlement in Mumbai
Author :Sheela Patel, Celine D'Cruz and Sundar Barra
Date : 01/04/2002 Pages :159-172
Public : Environment and Urbanisation Place : UK/Argentina
Title :India’s poor present a latent opportunity for growth: Prahalad
Author :Our Correspondent
Date : 17/01/2002
Public : Business Std(Bombay)
Title :Assembly okays slum area amendment bill
Author :The Times of India News Service
Date : 02/08/2001
Public : Times of India Place : Bombay
Title :Housing & slums : related government interventions
Date : 00/00/0000
Title :What can we do with a slum?
Author :LAURIE BAKER
Date : 00/00/0000
Title :Civil and political rights of slum dwellers
Author :Rajindar Sachar
Date : 00/00/0000
Title :A Right to Housing?
Author :Jayna Kothari
Date : 00/00/0000
List of Books & Reports at CED